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D. Rolling Kearney


identity confusion that has been encouraged and then exploited in the training in order to control participants is now used to tie them to Lifespring in the future by enrolling them in new trainings and enlisting them as recruiters”. More than 400,000 people worldwide participated in the Lifespring workshops.

“Though John Hanley denied that Lifespring was a duplicate of Erhard Seminars Training, [Gordon] Melton and [James] Lewis described the similarities between the two as “striking”, in their 1992 work, Perspectives on the New Age. Melton and Lewis point out that both Werner Erhard and John Hanley had previously worked at Mind Dynamics. They then went on to cite specific examples of techniques utilized by both Lifespring and EST, stating that both used “authoritarian trainers who enforce numerous rules”, both groups require applause after a member’s “share” in front of the group, both deemphasized reason, in favor of “feeling and action”. The authors also pointed out that graduates of both Lifespring and est were “fiercely loyal”, and recruited heavily for their respective groups, reducing marketing expenses to virtually zero.”

4) Lifespring and Landmark in turn spawned dozens of offshoots 21:



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